First Nation Treaties

First Nation Treaties

The impact of treaty-making in Canada has been wide-ranging and long standing. The treaties the Crown has signed with Aboriginal peoples since the 18th century have permitted the evolution of Canada as we know it. In fact, much of Canada's land mass is covered by treaties.

This treaty-making process, which has evolved over more than 300 years between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people in Canada, has its origins in the early diplomatic relationship developed between European settlers and Aboriginal people.

These diplomatic proceedings were the first steps in a long process that has led to today's comprehensive claims agreements between the Crown and Aboriginal people.

Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Canada (AANDC) is the federal department responsible for negotiating and implementing treaties (including comprehensive claims). AANDC also maintains a center of expertise for understanding Canada's pre-1975 treaties with First Nations Peoples.

Currently, there are approximately 70 recognised treaties that form the basis of the relationship between 364 First Nations, representing over 600,000 First Nations people, and the Crown.


Article Index:

14 Douglas Treaties of 1850-1854

From 1850-1854, Douglas negotiated a series of fourteen land purchases from the Aboriginal people at Fort Victoria, Fort Rupert, and Nanaimo. Like treaties in Central Canada from the same period, these treaties were simple land transactions.

Canadian Historical Indian Treaties Time Line

Peace and Friendship Treaties

  • 1725 December 15
  • 1749 August 15
  • 1752 November 22
  • 1760 February 10
  • 1760 March 10 & 1761 June 25
  • 1764 August
  • 1779 September 22
Recent progress in Canadian aboriginal comprehensive land claims

Since 2006, Canada and its negotiation partners have signed six comprehensive land claims (modern treaties) agreements and one self-government agreement. Of the six signed comprehensive land claim agreements, four included provisions related to self-government.

Role of the Peace and Friendship Treaties (1725-1779)
The Numbered Treaties 1 to 11 (1871-1921)
The Robinson-Superior and Robinson-Huron Treaties of 1850
Transcript of Douglas / Vancouver Island Treaties
Transcript of Treaty of 1725 for Ratification at Annapolis Royal [Treaty no. 239]
Transcript of Treaty of Peace and Friendship 1760
Transcript of Treaty or Articles of Peace and Friendship Renewed 1752
Treaties of Peace and Neutrality (1701-1760)
Upper Canada Land Surrenders 1763-1923
Williams Treaties signed in1923 to 1950 settled conflicts from 1700s and 1800s treaties