New Brunswick

The New Brunswick First Nations of Canada number more than 10,000, mostly Mi'kmaq and Maliseet.

The Mi'kmaq

When the Mi'kmaq first encountered Europeans in the 16th and 17th centuries, their territory stretched from the southern portions of the Gaspe peninsula eastward to most of modern-day New Brunswick, and all of Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island.

This area was divided into seven smaller territories loosely united by a common language, kinship and political alliances.

Unlike some of their southern neighbours, their society was not based on agriculture; they hunted, fished and gathered their food. This meant their settlement patterns were largely governed by the rhythm of the changing seasons.

The Maliseet

The Maliseet are part of the Algonquin linguistic family. There are 6,005 Maliseet in the Atlantic Region, of which nearly 3,541 live on-reserve.

The Maliseet are the only other Aboriginal people living in the Maritime provinces today. Their lands once stretched along the banks of the St. John River (in present day New Brunswick and Maine) and extended as far west as the St. Lawrence.

The Maliseet, like their Mi'kmaq neighbours, are Algonquin. But while the two nations share a similar natural environment and way of life, their languages and culture are quite distinct.

The Maliseet are closer to the neighbouring American Native peoples in Maine, New Hampshire and Quebec than to their Mi'kmaq neighbours to the north and east.


  • Burnt Church First Nation



  • Fort Folly First Nation


  • Kingsclear First Nation


  • Madawaska Maliseet First Nation
  • Metepenagiag Mi'kmaq Nation


  • Oromocto First Nation


  • Pabineau First Nation


  • St. Mary's First Nation


  • Tobique First Nation


  • Woodstock First Nation

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