Manitoba First Nations Chronological Time Line


The Manitoba First Nations archeological record goes back 6,000 to 10,000 years

10000 BC to 6000 BC  Archaeological evidence verified the continued existence of First Nations (Palaeo) cultures in Manitoba through dating of stone spearheads 
6000 BC to 1 AD  Archaeologists believe that First Nation Peoples in Manitoba during this period changed their food acquisition strategies to meet changing conditions by developing new technologies and techniques for hunting bison which remained the main source of the economy until the 19th century. Other food sources appeared to be deer, wolf, rabbit, fox, and wild plants such as blueberries and cherries. Archaeological evidence of tools included small chipped stone projectile points and knives. According to the archaeologists, this period provided the first direct evidence of many aspects of culture that were not well documented in previous times. First Nation peoples of the period appeared to have formal burials with grave goods reflecting an elaborate belief system.


1500 BC Archaeological evidence of Inuit was found along shores of Hudson Bay
500 BC  Archaeological evidence of early trade among early peoples found in Manitoba – copper from Lake Superior, pipestone from Minnesota, shell from the Gulf of Mexico, volcanic glass from Wyoming, flint from North Dakota 
200 BC to 1750 AD  The Woodland complex spread westward to many areas of the Plains resulting in the adoption of the term “Plains Woodland” for First Nation groups in the region.
1100 AD  First archaeological evidence of agriculture with corn seeded along the banks of the Red River, north of present-day Winnipeg Archaeological evidence included pottery and burial mounds throughout the forest and prairie regions of Manitoba

Archaeological evidence showed that maize was grown but bison hunting appeared to be dominant on the prairies and mixed economies were based on hunting, fishing, and wild rice gathering

Archaeological evidence of the use of the bow-and-arrow in Manitoba

Manitoba First Nations maintained important trading relationships and cultural exchanges with First Nations from the south (present-day United States) and east (present-day eastern Canada)


1500 AD  Climate change appeared to hamper growth of native corn varieties – First Nations gradually switched from agriculture to more hunting, fishing and trapping
1612  Captain Thomas Button wintered two ships at Port Nelson, near the mouths of the Nelson and Hayes Rivers as the Europeans searched for the fabled ‘Northwest Passage’ in the Hudson Bay area in Manitoba  
1670 King Charles II of England granted sovereignty over large part of Canada to “the Governor & Company of Adventurers of England Trading into Hudson’s Bay” or the Hudson’s Bay Company 
1673 La Vérendrye led a party from New France to explore the Red and Winnipeg rivers and built several outposts in the area that is now Winnipeg 
1690 Henry Kelsey explored Northern Manitoba from Hudson Bay to Saskatchewan River, near present-day The Pas and Opaskwayak Cree Nation 
1731 British build Fort Prince of Wales near Churchill 
1763  Royal Proclamation signed by King George III of Great Britain recognized First Nations people as “nations” and acknowledged that they continued to possess lands and territories until they were “ceded to or purchased by” the Crown. The consent of First Nations was required in any negotiations for their lands.
1782 French captured and damaged Fort Prince of Wales near Churchill 
1783  Construction of Fort Churchill by Hudson’s Bay Company which remained in continuous use until 1933 
1794 Article III of the Jay Treaty, an Imperial Treaty entered into with the United States, stated that First Nations people in what is now Canada and the United States were to be exempt from payment of duties on certain goods 
1811  Lord Selkirk established agricultural settlement. 
1816 Governor Robert Semple and 19 colonists killed in battle with Metis at Seven Oaks in a dispute over changing lifestyles along the Red River 
1817  The Ojibwe and the Cree negotiated the Selkirk treaty with the Earl of Selkirk to share “property rights” to allow for the establishment of the Red River Colony 
1818 An agreement between Canada and the United States confirmed the 49th Parallel as the border between the two countries, as far west as the Rocky Mountains 
1821  North West Company was amalgamated with the Hudson’s Bay Company The Hudson’s Bay Company was given the exclusive right to trade with First Nation peoples throughout the “uninhabited areas of North America” (sic)


1867  Adoption of the British North America Act – In section 91, the federal government assumed responsibility for First Nations and lands reserved for First Nations Canada bought Rupert’s Land (all lands draining into Hudson’s Bay) from the Hudson’s Bay Company for $300,000. without informing the 12,000+ inhabitants of the land. However, a clause in the ministerial order integrating this land provided that Canada must satisfy First Nation peoples claims in respect of land.

Adoption of an Act provided for the organization of the Department of the Secretary of State of Canada and for the Administration of the Affairs of the Indians and of the Ordinance, and consolidated all earlier laws and treaties concerning First Nation peoples


1867 Adoption of an Act provided for the gradual removal of status from First Nations, improved administration of the affairs of the First Nations and gave more power to the Superintendent of Indian Affairs 
1868 Delegates of Louis Riel’s government negotiated with federal government to join Confederation – Manitoba called the “Postage Stamp” province (1/18 current size) 
1870  The Manitoba Act was passed establishing the Province of Manitoba The Canadian militia seized the Red River colony and Louis Riel was exiled


1871  Treaties 1 and 2 signed with the Ojibwe in southern Manitoba at Manitoba House and Lower Fort Garry and marked the beginning of a series of treaties with the First Nations – included setting aside reserve land, annual treaty payments, grants for clothing, annual payments for ammunition and rope, provision for education, medical assistance and food aid in case of famine 
1873  Treaty No. 3 signed with the Ojibwe in southeastern Manitoba and northwestern Ontario, which opened the way for immigrants to travel from Ontario to Manitoba and for the transcontinental railway. 
1874  Treaty No. 4 or the “Qu’Appelle Treaty” signed with the Ojibwe and the Cree, in which they agreed to share 194,000 square kilometres of land in southeastern Saskatchewan and southwestern Manitoba 
1875 Treaty No. 5 or the “Lake Winnipeg Treaty” signed with the Ojibwe and the Cree who agreed to share 260,000 square kilometres of land around Lakes Winnipeg and Manitoba  
1876  Treaty No. 6 signed with the Cree and Assiniboine (Stoney) in which they agreed to share 310,000 square kilometres of land in central Alberta. Indian Act passed by the Canadian Parliamant which included automatic removal of status from First Nations women who marry non-First Nations and trusteeship over First Nations and their lands


1877 Treaty No. 7 signed with the Blackfoot, Blood, Peigan, Sarcee and Assiniboine Nations who agreed to share the remaining lands in southern Alberta 
1878  John Norquay, became the first Metis premier for the Province of Manitoba 
1879  The bison almost totally disappeared from the Canadian plains 
1880  The Indian Act was amended to allow for the removal of status for any First Nation person who obtained a university degree. It also increased the power of the Superintendent General to impose elections and prohibited hereditary chiefs from exercising power unless they were elected 
1884  The Indian Act was amended to ban potlatches and remained in effect until 1951 – several First Nations people were sent to prison 
1885 Northwest Rebellion – Louis Riel and eight First Nations people were hungDuring the rebellion, there were approximately 12,000 (95%) First Nations and Metis in the Red River area, along with approximately 600 (5%) of British or Canadian descent

Unofficial federal policy required a permit (pass) to be signed by the Indian Agent for First Nations to have permission to leave reserve lands in western Canada – this was enforced by the North-west Mounted Police


1889 The Indian Act was amended to enable the federal government to ignore the opposition of First Nation bands to leases of their lands 
1892  The Criminal Code stated that it was an indictable offence for any person “who induces, incites, or stirs up any three or more Indians, non-treaty Indians or half-breeds to meet together to make demands upon civil servants in a riotous or disorderly manner” The federal government started making arrangements for the establishment of residential schools for First Nation students with the Roman Catholic Church, Anglican Church, United Church and the Presbyterian Church


1894  The federal government passed legislation for the arrest of truant students, to forcefully send students to school, and to fine or impose jail terms on parents who resisted – Indian agents were given the power to send students to residential schools and to keep them there until they were 18 
1906 The total population in the First Nation Reserves was 18,629 – First Nations now represented only 2.3% of the total population of the Northwest Provinces in 1906, down from 4.6% in 1901 Treaty No. 10 signed with the Dene and the Cree covering the sharing of lands in northern Manitoba and Saskatchewan

The federal government appointed the Chief Justice of the Manitoba Court of Appeal to investigate a land dispute which eventually led to the loss of the St. Peter’s lands and a forced move for the ancestors of the Peguis Ojibwe First Nation


1911 Robert Morden, an MP, stated that the proposed Indian Act amendment, 49A violated treaty rights. He stated, “The Indians in Canada have certain rights granted to them by treaties and heretofore, these treaties have never been departed from except with the consent of the Indians themselves. You treat the Indians as not being capable of dealing with their own affairs. You treat them as wards of the government. And you who are their guardians propose to judge for yourselves and through your own courts as to whether or not treaties, made with the Indians shall be departed from. And you do not propose that the proposal shall come before the Parliament of the nation every time a treaty is to be violated. On the contrary, your purpose is to create a procedure and a practice by which every one of these treaties can, without any effective means being afforded the Indians to oppose the carrying out of any particular project in any particular instance.”The amendment, 49A, proceeded and allowed the federal government to expropriate First Nations lands near towns or cities without their consent


1912  Final boundary change (North 60º) completed current Manitoba size 
1914 An amendment to the Indian Act stated that First Nations required the consent of the Indian Agent to participate in dances, rodeos and exhibitions and were prohibited from wearing traditional outfits without government consent.  
1916  The Convention on Migratory Birds was signed by Canada and the United States – The Migratory Birds Convention Act of 1917 placed limits of First Nations hunting game birds

The federal government confirmed the allocation of a new reserve for the Peguis First Nation and enacted the St. Peter’s Reserve Act to validate legal titles to their former St. Peter’s lands


1918 Joe Keeper (Norway House Cree) ran his first seven mile race with 40 competitors and placed first and was later named to the Canadian Olympic team where he placed fourth in the 10,000 metre race 
1927  The Indian Act was amended to prevent First Nations from raising funds for claim purposes without the written consent of the Superintendent of Indian Affairs . It also prohibited First Nations from selling cattle or produce without written consent of an Indian Agent. 
1930  Natural Resource Transfer Agreement was signed by Canada and Manitoba which included the application of provincial gaming laws on traditional First Nation territories. However, First Nations peoples were entitled to hunt, fish and trap all year on any “unoccupied Crown lands” and on private land to which they are granted access.  
1933 The Indian Act was amended to automatically remove status from any First Nation person who obtained a university degree 
1939 A decision of the Supreme Court of Canada ruled that an Inuit is an “Indian within the definition in the Act” however the federal government did not actually offer programs to the Inuit, such as social assistance, until 1950 
1947 The Indian Association of Manitoba informed the Special Joint Committee of the Senate and House of Commons that treaties had been violated and that the Indian Act should be abolished and tax exemptions should remain for First Nations people. 
1951 The Indian Act was amended to remove the ban on potlatches and other traditional ceremonies, and allow First Nation people to legally enter drinking establishments A Joint Senate-House of Commons Committee recommended the creation of a commission to consider claims in connection with the application of treaties


1952  The Province of Manitoba allowed First Nations people the right to vote in the provincial election 
1956  The Sayisi Dene were forcefully moved to Churchill by the federal government 
1958 James Gladstone (Blood) was appointed to the Canadian Senate as the first First Nation Senator 
1960 The Indian Act was amended to allow First Nations the right to vote in federal elections 
1966 The federal Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development (DIAND) was formed 
1967  Dave Courchene Sr. (Sagkeeng Ojibwe) elected president of the Manitoba Indian Brotherhood 
1968  Mary Two-Axe Earley (Mohawk) began her fight to combat discrimination against women under the Indian Act which she won in 1985Len Marchand (Okanagan) was the first First Nation person elected as a Member of Parliament


1969 The White Paper was presented by then Minister of Indian Affairs Jean Chrétien which proposed the repeal the Indian Act, remove “special status” for First Nation peoples and abolish all treaties – Indian Affairs officials were withdrawn from reserves 
1969  The Canadian Government established the Canadian Indian Claims Commission to deal with land claims 
1970 The federal government authorized the funding of First Nation organizations for research into treaty and aboriginal rights Dave Courchene Sr. (Sagkeeng Ojibwe) was the first First Nation person to receive an honorary doctor of laws degree from a Manitoba University (University of Manitoba)


1971  Wahbung was published by the Manitoba Indian Brotherhood which outlined the collective positions and visions of the Manitoba Chiefs for the future of First Nations education, health, social development, economic development, housing and all other aspects of life Jean Folster was elected as the first female Chief of the Norway House Cree Nation

Helen Betty Osborne (Norway House Cree student) was murdered in The Pas – this later led to the Aboriginal Justice Inquiry


1972  The National Indian Brotherhood, later the Assembly of First Nations, called for more parental involvement and local control in education 
1973 Jean Chretien, Minister of Indian Affairs, announced the adoption of the federal government policy for Indian Control of Indian EducationThe Supreme Court of Canada affirmed that First Nation women who married non-First Nation men should continue to lose their status


1974  The Office of Indian Claims was created and located within the Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development. Its mandate was to review claims and represent the Minister and the Government of Canada in claims assessment and negotiation with First Nation groups. The Dakota Ojibway Tribal Council (DOTC) was established in Brandon, Manitoba as the first tribal council in Canada

The United States ruled that First Nations people born in Canada had a right to travel freely between Canada and the United States without registering at the United States border or using visas based on the Jay Treaty


1975 The first First Nation shopping mall was opened on the Opaskwayak Cree Nation and included three-levels of 225,000 square feet and housed 25 retails stores  
1977  The Treaty Land Entitlement Committee of Manitoba was formed to work towards settlement of the Treaty land entitlement issue in Manitoba Marion Ironquil Meadmore became the first Canadian Cree female lawyer to be admitted to the bar (Bar of Manitoba)

The Manitoba Northern Flood Agreement (NFA) was signed between Canada, the Province of Manitoba, Manitoba Hydro and the Northern Flood Committee Inc. (NFC), [Norway House Cree Nation, York Factory First Nation, Split Lake (Tataskweyak Cree Nation), Nelson House (Nisichawayasihk Cree Nation) and Cross Lake First Nation (Pimicikamak Cree Nation)]

Dakota Ojibway Tribal Council (DOTC) Police Department (now Dakota Ojibway Police Service) was the first tribal police unit established in Manitoba


1977  25 First Nations in Manitoba stated that had still not received their full land allotment under the terms of their treaties 
1981 Elijah Harper, an Ojibwe-Cree from Red Sucker Lake, became the first Status person to be elected in Manitoba as a provincial politician when he served as a Member of Legislative Assembly from 1981 to 1992. His provincial government positions included Minister for Native Affairs and Minister of Northern Affairs 
1982  Adoption of the Constitution Act by the Canadian Parliament – section 35 recognized aboriginal and treaty rights of the First Nations, Inuit and Métis The Assembly of First Nations recognized June 21 as National Solidarity Day for all First Nation peoples


1983  The report of the Special Committee on Indian Self-Government (Penner Report) was published. Its first recommendation was that the federal government should establish a new kind of relationship with the First Nations, with First Nation self- government as an essential component of this relationship. The report recommended the constitutional recognition of First Nation autonomy, with a transfer of powers to bands and tribal councils. First constitutional conference on First Nation autonomy was held with agreement on four additions to the Canadian Constitution:
– recognition of rights acquired under agreements to settle land claims
– a guarantee of equal recognition for men and women of rights arising from the treaties
– an undertaking to consult the First Nations on any future constitutional amendment relating to them and
– an undertaking to hold three further conferences.


1984  The final ruling in the Musqueam Band’s 1975 lawsuit, Guerin v. The Queen recognized that Aboriginal rights existed before Canada became a country and that those rights apply both on and off the reserve. It also confirmed that the federal government must protect the interests of First Nation people. The Pope stated that First Nation peoples have a right to self-government, their own resources and their own economy.


1985  Third constitutional conference on First Nation rights held resulting in a stalemate Report of the Task Force on the Comprehensive Land Claims policy (Coolican) outlined the history of the treaties and claims and a framework for a new policy on comprehensive claims

The Indian Act was amended through Bill C-31 to address the status of First Nation women – to end discrimination and allow for recovery of status by certain First Nation women. The federal government also included clauses to limit the extension of status to future generations (6.1 and 6.2)


1986 Federal land claims policy was changed; review of the negotiation process; there was no longer a comprehensive extinction of ancestral rights but only a transfer of land; self-government agreements are possible, without constitutional entrenchment and agreements on property rights, pre-property rights and natural resources The United Church of Canada was the first religious organization to publicly apologize for its treatment of First Nation students in residential schools in Canada


1987  Elijah Harper, a Manitoba MLA, helped to defeat the Meech Lake Accord which stated Quebec was ‘A Distinct Society Within Canada,’ and dealt with matters enhancing provincial relationships with the federal government but which did not adequately address First Nation concerns Dr. Marlyn Cook (Cox) (Grand Rapids Cree) became one of the University of Manitoba medical school’s first three Aboriginal graduates


1988 Ethel Blondin-Andrew (Dene-Slavey), MP, was the first First Nation woman to ever sit in the House of Commons J.J. Harper (Wasagamach Ojibwe-Cree) was mistakenly shot by a City of Winnipeg Police Officer which later led to the Aboriginal Justice Inquiry

The Assembly of Manitoba Chiefs was created by the Chiefs of Manitoba to present a united front on common issues and concerns

The Honourable Associate Chief Judge Murray Sinclair (Peguis Ojibwe) was appointed Associate Chief Judge of the Provincial Court of Manitoba. He was Manitoba’s first Aboriginal Judge, and at that time, Canada’s second

The Government of Manitoba established the Manitoba Aboriginal Justice Inquiry Commission to inquire into Aboriginal justice issues in Manitoba which was co-chaired by Judge Murray Sinclair (Peguis Ojibwe)


1990  The Supreme Court of Canada (Sparrow v. The Queen) ruled that Section 35 of the Constitution Act provides “a strong measure of protection” for Aboriginal rights. The Court further ruled that the Aboriginal and treaty rights are capable of evolving over time and must be interpreted in a generous and liberal manner. The Court also ruled that governments may regulate existing First Nations management of resources and that after conservation goals are met, First Nations people must be given priority to fish for food over other user groups. 
1990 Oscar Lathlin was the first person from the Opaskwayak Cree Nation to be elected to the provincial legislature for the constituency of The Pas – he is currently the Minister of Aboriginal and Northern AffairsMary Jane McCallum was the first Cree woman from Barren Lands to receive a Doctor of Dental Medicine degree

Angela Chalmers (Birdtail Sioux Dakota) became the first woman in the history of the Games to win both the 1,500- and 3,000-metre races at the 1990 Commonwealth Games in Auckland, New Zealand


1991 The Indian Claims Commission was established by the federal government as an independent advisory body with authority to hold public inquiries into specific claims that have been rejected by the government and to help reach claim settlements Framework Agreement on Indian Education in Manitoba (Education Framework Agreement) was signed by the Assembly of Manitoba Chiefs and the Minister of Indian and Northern Affairs regarding a process for research and community consultation to lead to the exercise of jurisdiction for First Nations education

Ovide Mercredi (Grand Rapids Cree) was elected National Chief of the Assembly of First Nations

The Aboriginal Justice Inquiry issued its report recommending that extensive structural changes be made to the administration of justice in Manitoba, with the goal of establishing a distinct Aboriginal justice system for First Nation and Metis peoples

The federal government established the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples (RCAP) with the objectives of restoring justice to the relationship between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people in Canada and to propose practical solutions

The Manitoba Association for Native Fire Fighters was established by the Fire Chiefs in Manitoba to address fire and emergency issues


1992 Reverend Stan McKay (Fisher River Cree) became the Moderator of the United Church, the highest spiritual position within the church Angela Chalmers (Birdtail Sioux Dakota) won the Olympic bronze in the 3,000 metres at the Barcelona Summer Games

Phil Fontaine (Sagkeeng Ojibwe), then Grand Chief of the Assembly of Manitoba Chiefs, first publicly spoke about the physical and sexual abuse that many First Nations people had suffered in Residential Schools

Ethel Blondin-Andrew (Dene-Slavey), MP, was the first First Nation woman appointed to a senior political level as Secretary of State (Training and Youth) and was also the first First Nation woman to become member of the Privy Council and Cabinet

Elijah Harper was elected to the House of Commons in Ottawa, where he was also a member of the Parliamentary Standing Committee of Aboriginal Affairs

Eric Robinson was the first Cree person from Cross Lake (Pimicikamak Cree Nation) who was elected as the NDP MLA for Rupertsland in a by-election – later appointed Minister of Aboriginal and Northern Affairs and Minister of Culture, Heritage and Tourism and the Minister responsible for Sport and Recreation

Honorable W. Yvon Dumont (St. Laurent Metis) was sworn in as Manitoba’s 21st Lieutenant Governor

The General Assembly of the United Nations declared that the years 1995 to 2004 would be the International Decade of the World’s Indigenous People


1994  Signing of Framework Agreement Initiative in Manitoba by the Assembly of Manitoba Chiefs and the Minister of Indian and Northern Affairs regarding a process for community consultation and research to lead to the exercise of self-government Judge Murray Sinclair (Peguis Ojibwe), lawyer and judge, and Verna Kirkness (Fisher River Cree), educator, received the National Aboriginal Achievement Awards


1995  Angela Chalmers (Birdtail Sioux Dakota), an Olympic bronze medalist; Chief Louis Stevenson, (Peguis Ojibwe); and former Manitoba Indian Brotherhood President Ahab Spence, (Tataskweyak Cree), received the National Aboriginal Achievement Awards  
1996 An agreement-in-principle was signed confirming the government’s determination to address the problems of outstanding obligations owed to Manitoba’s First Nations. The agreement-in-principle was signed between negotiators for Canada, Manitoba, and 19 Treaty Entitlement First Nations in Manitoba. Elijah Harper (Red Sucker Lake Ojibwe-Cree) and Phil Fontaine (Sagkeeng Ojibwe) received the National Aboriginal Achievement Awards

The final report of the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples (RCAP) was tabled in Canada’s Parliament. The Commission declared that the elements of partnership must be recreated in modern form and that the starting point for this transformation is recognition of Aboriginal nationhood. They stated that (First Nations) were nations when they forged military and trade alliances with European nations. They were nations when they signed treaties to share their lands and resources. And they are nations today – in their coherence, their distinctiveness and their understanding of themselves.

June 21 of each year was declared National Aboriginal Day by the Governor General of Canada to celebrate the cultures of Aboriginal peoples of Canada and their numerous contributions to Canadian society


1997  The Manitoba Treaty Land Entitlement Framework Agreement was signed by 19 First Nations, Canada, and Manitoba – the agreement was intended to provide land to 19 First Nations in order to fulfil the land obligations arising out of treaties signed between 1871 and 1910. The Supreme Court of Canada handed down its decision in the Delgamuukw Case suggesting that negotiations were the best way to resolve outstanding claims. The Court provided the first comprehensive statements on Aboriginal title, “that is, the right to exclusive use and occupation of land.” The Court also indicated that to prove Aboriginal title, a group must establish that it, exclusively, occupied the land in question when the Crown asserted sovereignty over the land.

Phil Fontaine (Sagkeeng Ojibwe) was elected National Chief of the Assembly of First Nations

Reverend Stan McKay (Fisher River Cree) received the National Aboriginal Achievement Award

Tina Keeper (Norway House Cree) won a Gemini Award for Best Actress in a Continuing Series

The United Nations declared August 9th of each year to be International Day of the World’s Indigenous People


1998 Minister Jane Stewart, Indian and Northern Affairs Canada, gave a formal apology to the First Nations people of Canada for years of neglect and mistreatment, including the widespread abuse of students at federally-funded boarding schools and announced a healing fund of $350 million. She stated, “Sadly, our history with respect to the treatment of Aboriginal people is not something in which we can take pride. Attitudes of racial and cultural superiority led to a suppression of Aboriginal culture and values. As a country, we are burdened by past actions that resulted in weakening the identity of Aboriginal peoples, suppressing their languages and cultures, and outlawing spiritual practices. We must recognize the impact of these actions on the once self-sustaining nations that were disaggregated, disrupted, limited or even destroyed by the dispossession of traditional territory, by the relocation of Aboriginal people, and by some provisions of the Indian Act. We must acknowledge that the result of these actions was the erosion of the political, economic and social systems of Aboriginal people and nations”. The Rolling River First Nation’s Treaty Entitlement Agreement (TEA) was signed fulfilling the treaty land entitlements owed to them under Treaty No. 4 – Rolling River’s TEA was the first agreement signed under the Manitoba Treaty Land Entitlement Framework Agreement

Aboriginal Healing Foundation was established by the federal government to encourage and support Aboriginal people in building and reinforcing sustainable healing processes that address the legacy of Physical Abuse and Sexual Abuse in the Residential School system, including intergenerational impacts


1999 George Hickes (Inuit) became the first elected Speaker of the Legislative Assembly in the history of the Province of Manitoba Dorothy Betz (Pine Creek Ojibwe) received the National Aboriginal Achievement Award for community development

The (Inuit) Government of Nunavut was established

The Manitoba First Nations Education Resource Centre was established by the Chiefs of Manitoba to provide second and third level services to teachers and students in First Nation schools

The Supreme Court of Canada ruled in the Corbiere case that the words in section 77 (1) of the Indian Act, “and is ordinarily resident on the reserve.” violated the Charter rights of the off-reserve members who were not allowed to vote in First Nation elections


2000 Fjola Hart Wasekeesikaw (Norway House Cree), R.N., M.N., received the National Aboriginal Achievement Award for health and medicine 
2001 Tomson Highway (Barren Lands Cree), playwright, received the National Aboriginal Achievement Award for Arts and Culture 
2003  Today, there are more than 115,000 people of First Nation descent in Manitoba